Morpho-agronomic variability, traits association and path analysis in Rosemary (Salvia rosmarinus Schleid.) genotypes from Ethiopia


  • Zewdinesh Damtew Zigene Ethiopian Institute of Agricultural Research, Wondo Genet Agricultural Research Center, Ethiopia
  • Bizuayehu Tesfaye Asfaw Hawassa University College of Agriculture, P.O Box 05, Hawassa, Ethiopia
  • Tesfaye Disasa Bitima Ethiopian Institute of Agricultural Research, National Agricultural Biotechnology Research Center, Ethiopia



Accessions, Ethiopian rosemary, genetic variability, Salvia rosmarinus


Forty-five rosemary genotypes collected from different parts of Ethiopia were evaluated for quantitative morphological traits to estimate the genetic variability, heritability and association of characters. The genotypes displayed significant differences for all of the studied traits, showing the presence of wide variability among the tested genotypes. The genotypic and phenotypic coefficients of variation were found to be medium and high for all growth and yield traits except for leaf length. Moderately high to high broad-sense heritability (0.66 -0.97) coupled with moderate to high genetic advance as a percent of the mean (10.37 -79.14) values were found for all traits.  Correlation coefficient and path coefficient analysis revealed that characters vis. branch number plant-1, fresh leaf weight plant-1, dry leaf weight plant-1, fresh leaf yield ha-1, and essential oil content had a high positive direct effect and significant positive association with essential oil yield ha-1. Thus direct selection for these traits would be quite effective for essential oil yield enhancement in rosemary. In general, the studied accessions were diverse in nature and could be exploited in the conservation, breeding and commercialization of the crop.


Download data is not yet available.


Abayneh, E., Demeke, T., & Ashenafi, A. (2006). Soils of Wondo Genet Agricultural Research Center. Ethopia: National Soil Research Center.

Aditya, J. P., Bhartiya, P., & Bhartiya, A. (2011). Genetic variability, heritability and character association for yield and component characters in soybean (G. max (L.) Merrill). Journal of Central European Agriculture, 12(1), 27-34.

Ahsan, M. Z., Majidano, M. S., Bhutto, H., Soomro, A. W., Panhwar, F. H., Channa, A. R., & Sial, K. B. (2015). Genetic Variability, Coefficient of Variance, Heritability and Genetic Advance of Some Gossypium hirsutum L. Accessions. Journal of Agricultural Science, 7(2), 147-151.

Ali, M. S., Saleem, M., Ali, Z., & Ahmad, V. U. (2000). Chemistry of Zataria multiora (Lamiaceae). Phytochemistry, 55(8), 933-936.

Allard, R. W. (1960). Principles of Plant Breeding. New York, US: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

Alvarado, G., Vargas, M., Lopez, M., Pacheco, A., Rodriguez, F., Burgueno, J., & Crossa, J. (2016). META-R (Multi Environment Trial Analysis with R for Windows). Centro Internacional de Mejoramiento de Maíz y Trigo (CIMMYT).

Amaral, G. P., Carvalho, N. R. de, Barcelos, R. P., Dobrachinski, F., Portella, R. de L., Silva, M. H. da, Lugokenski, T. H., Dias, G. R. M., Luz, S. C. A. da, Boligon, A. A., Athayde, M. L., Villetti, M. A., Soares, F. A. A., & Fachinetto, R. (2013). Protective action of ethanoic extract of Rosmarinus officinalis L. in gastric ulcer prevention induced by ethanol in rats. Food and Chemical Toxicology, 55, 48-55.

Banjaw, D. T., Wolde, T. G., Gebre, A., & Mengesha, B. (2016). Rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis L.) variety verification trial at Wondogenet, South Ethiopia. Medicinal & Aromatic Plants, 5(5), 1-2.

Barreto, H. M., Filho, E. C. S., Lima, E. de O., Coutinho, H. D. M., Morais-Braga, M. F. B., Tavares C. C. A., Tintino, S. R., Rego, J. V., Abreu, A. P. L. de, Lustosa, M. do C. G., Oliveira, R. W. G., Cito, A. M. G. L., & Lopes, J. A. D. (2014). Chemical composition and possible use as adjuvant of the antibiotic therapy of the essential oil of Rosmarinus officinalis L. Industrial Crops and Products, 59, 290-294.

Bello, O. B., Ige, S. A., Azeez, M. A., Afolabi, M. S., Abdulmaliq, S., & Mahamood, J. (2012). Heritability and genetic advance for grain yield and its component character in Maize (Zea mays L.). International Journal of Plant Research, 2(5), 138-145.

Borras-Linares, Z., Stojanovic, R., Quirantes-Pine, D., Arraez-Roman, J., Svarc-Gajic, A., Fernandez-Gutierre, Z., & Segura-Carretero, A. (2014). Rosmarinus officinalis Leaves as a Natural Source of Bioactive Compound. International Journal of Molecular Sciences, 15(11) 20585-20606.

Cervelli, C., & Masselli, L. (2013). Characterization of Rosemary Cultivars for Ornamental Purposes. Acta Horticulturae, 1000, 107-114.

Deepthi, B., Reddy, P. S. S., Kumar, A. S., & Reddy, A. R. (2016). Studies on PCV, GCV, Heritability and Genetic advance in Bottle gourd genotypes for yield and yield components. Plant Archives, 16(2), 597-601.

De-Mastro, G., Ruta, C., Mincione, A., & Poiana, M. (2004). Bio-morphological and Chemical Characterization of Rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis L.) Biotypes. Acta Horticulturae, 629, 471-482.

Deshmukh, S. N., Basu, M. S., & Reddy, P. S. (1986). Genetic variability, character association and path analysis of quantitative traits in Virginia bunch varieties of ground nut. Indian Journal of Agricultural Sciences, 56, 816-821.

Dewey, D. R., & Lu, K. H. (1959). A correlation and path coefficient analysis of components of crested wheat grass seed production. Agronomy Journal, 51(9), 515-518.

Drew, B. T., González‐Gallegos, J. G., Xiang, C. L., Kriebel, R., Drummond, C. P., Walker, J. B., & Sytsma, K. J. (2017). Salvia united: The greatest good for the greatest number. Taxon, 66(1), 133-145.

Engels, J. M. M., Hawkes, J. G., & Melaku, W. (1991). Plant Genetic resource of Ethiopia. Cambridge, United Kingdom: Cambridge University Press.

Falconer, D. S. (1981). Introduction to Quantitative Genetics. (2nd ed.). New York, US: Longman Inc.

Flamini, G., Cioni, P. L., Morelli, I., Macchia, M., & Ceccarini, L. (2002). Main agronomic productive characteristics of two ecotypes of Rosmarinus officinalis L. and chemical composition of their essential oils. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, 50(12), 3512-3517.

Johnson, H. W., Robinson, H. F., & Comstock, R. E. (1955). Estimates of genetic and environmental variability in soybean. Agronomy Journal, 47(7), 314-318.

Jordan, M. J., Lax, V., Martinez, C., Aouissat, M., & Sotomayor, J. A. (2011). Chemical Intraspecific Variability and Chemotype Determination of Rosmarinus officinalis L. in the Region of Murcia. Acta Horticulturae, 925, 109-114.

Kassahun, B. M., Degu, B., & Fikadu, D. (2013, April 12-13). Variability in Ethiopian Rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis L.) Collections for Agronomic and Chemical Traits. The 4th Biennial Conference of the Ethiopian Horticultural Science Society on Sustainable Training, Research and Development towards Achieving the Growth and Transformation Plan (GTP). Ambo University, Ambo, Ethiopia.

Kumar, B., Mali, H., & Gupta, E. (2014). Genetic Variability, Character Association, and Path Analysis for Economic Traits in Menthofuran Rich Half-Sib Seed Progeny of Mentha piperita L. BioMed Research International, 2014, 150830.

Kwon, S. H., & Torrie, J. H. (1964). Heritability and interrelationship of two soybean (Glycine max L.) populations. Crop Science, 4, 196-198.

Larik, A. S., & Rajput, L. S. (2000). Estimation of selection indices in B. juncea L. and B. napus L. Pakistan Journal of Botany, 32(2), 323-330.

Li, G., Cervelli, C., Ruffoni, B., Shachter, A., & Dudai, N. (2016). Volatile diversity in wild populations of rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis L.) from the Tyrrhenian Sea vicinity cultivated under homogeneous environmental conditions. Industrial Crops and Products, 84, 381-390.

Malek, M. A., Rafii, M. Y., Afroz, M. S. S., Nath, U. K., & Mondal, M. M. A. (2014). Morphological Characterization and Assessment of Genetic Variability, Character Association, and Divergence in Soybean Mutants. The Scientific World Journal, 2014, 968796.

Mengesha, B., & Alemaw, G. (2010). Variability in Ethiopian Coriander Accessions for Agronomic & Quality traits. African Crop Science Journal, 18(2), 43-49.

Navarrete, A., Herrero, M., Martín, A., Cocero, M. J., & Ibánez, E. (2011). Valorization of solid wastes from essential oil industry. Journal of Food Engineering, 104(2), 196-201.

Naznin, S., Kawochar, M. A., Sultana, S., & Bhuiyan, M. S. R. (2015). Genetic Variability, Character Association and Path Analysis in Brassica rapa L. genotypes. Bangladesh Journal of Agricultural Research, 40(2), 305-323.

Ngo, S. N. T., Williams, D. B., & Head, R. J. (2011). Rosemary and cancer prevention: preclinical perspectives. Critical Reviews in Food Science and Nutrition, 51(10), 946-954.

Nunziata, A., De Benedetti, L., Marchioni, I., & Cervelli, C. (2019). High throughput measure of diversity in cytoplasmic and nuclear traits for unravelling geographic distribution of rosemary. Ecology and Evolution, 9(7), 3728-3739.

Pandey, G., & Dobhal, V. K. (1993). Genetic variability, character association and path analysis for yield components in ginger (Zingiber officinale Rose.). Journal of Spices and Aromatic Crops, 2(1), 16-20.

Panes, V. G., & Sukhatme, P. V. (1995). Statistical methods for agricultural workers. (3rd ed.). New Delhi: ICAR.

Parameshwarappa, S. G., Palakshappa, M. G., Salimath, P. M., & Parameshwarappa, K. G. (2009). Studies on genetic variability and character association in germplasm collection of sesame (Sesamum indicum L.). Karnataka Journal of Agricultural Sciences, 22(2), 252-254.

Pottier-Alapetite, G. (1981). Flore de la Tunisie, Angiospermes dicotylédones. Gamopétales. Tunisie: I.O.R.

Ribeiro-Santos, R., Carvalho-Costa, D., Cavaleiro, C., Costa, H. S., Albuquerque, T. G., Castilho, M. C., Ramos, F., Melo, N. R., & Sanches-Silva, A. (2015). A novel insight on an ancient aromatic plant: The rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis L.). Trends in Food Science and Technology, 45(2), 355-368.

Rukhsar, Patel, M. P., Parmar, D. J., & Kumar, S. (2018). Genetic variability, character association and genetic divergence studies in castor (Ricinus communis L.). Annals of Agrarian Science, 16(2), 143-148.

Sabaghnia, N., Dehghani, H., Alizadeh, B., & Mohghaddam, M. (2010). Interrelationships between seed yield and related traits of 49 canola (Brassica napus L.) genotypes in non-stressed and water-stressed environments. Spanish Journal of Agricultural Research, 8(2), 356-370.

Sangwan, O., Avtar, R., & Singh, A. (2013). Genetic variability, character association and path analysis in ashwagandha [Withania somnifera (L.) Dunal] under rainfed conditions. Research in Plant Biology, 3(2), 32-36.

SAS Institute Inc. (2013). SAS/STAT Software 9.4. SAS Institute Inc.

Sasikumar, B. (2012). Rosemary. In K.V. Peter (Ed.), Handbook of herbs and spices (Vol. 1, pp. 452-468) New Delhi, India: Woodhead Publishing Limited.

Singh, B., Saxena, A. K., Chandan, B. K., Gupta, D. K., Bhutani, K. K., & Anand, K. K. (2001). Adaptogenic activity of a novel, withanolide-free aqueous fraction from the root of Withania somnifera Dun. Phytotherapy Research, 15(4), 311-318.

Singh, R. K., & Chaudhary, B. D. (1985). Biometrical methods in quantitative genetic analysis. New Delhi, India: Kalyani Publishers.

Smita, S., & Kishori, R. L. (2018). Estimation of Genetic Variability, Heritability and Genetic Advance for Essential Oil Yield and Related Quantitative. Advances in Crop Science and Technology, 6(2), 350.

Srivastava, A., Gupta, A. K., Shanker, K., Gupta, M. M., Mishra, R., & Lal R. K. (2018). Genetic variability, associations, and path analysis of chemical and morphological traits in Indian ginseng [Withania somnifera (L.) Dunal] for selection of higher yielding genotypes. Journal of Ginseng Research, 42(2), 158-164.

Syukur, M., Sujiprihati, S., & Yunianti, R. (2012). Teknik Pemuliaan Tanaman. Jakarta, Indonesia: Penebar Swadaya.

Zaouali, Y., Bouzaine, T., & Boussaid, M. (2010). Essential oils composition in two Rosmarinus officinalis L. varieties and incidence for antimicrobial and antioxidant activities. Food and Chemical Toxicology, 48(11), 3144 -3152.



How to Cite

Zigene, Z. D., Asfaw, B. T. ., & Bitima, T. D. . (2023). Morpho-agronomic variability, traits association and path analysis in Rosemary (Salvia rosmarinus Schleid.) genotypes from Ethiopia. Research in Plant Biology, 13, 1–10.